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Yoga Dictionary of Quotes ©
Compiled by R. John Allcorn

3 Bodies:
“The Yoga Cudamani Upanishad explains the significance of man’s three bodies.... The portion composed of physical elements is called the ‘gross body’ (sthulasharira); that portion made up of subtle elements is called the astral (or subtle) body (sukshmasharira); that part which contains the causes of all that each human being is as an individual, is known as the causal body (karanasharira).” (6, p131)

3 Gunas:
See “Gunas”

3 Jewels of Buddhism:
“Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha.” (10, p 118)

4 Pillars of concentration:
Vitarka anugata samadhi, Vicara anugata samadhi, ananda anugata samadhi, asmita anugata samadhi

4 Stages of Spiritual Practice in Tantra Yoga:
“The four stages of spiritual practice that can help us remove the five cloaking principles [see below] and actually experience Shiva’s unlimited state for ourselves.” The stages are: krya upaya, shakta upaya, shambhava upaya and anupaya. (29, 76-77)

5 Hindrances - Buddhism:
"The Five Hindrances are: (1) Sensuous Lust, (2) Ill-will, (3) Physical and mental torpor and languour, (4) Restlessness and worry, (5) Doubt. (34, 3)

5 Kanchukas/Veils of Consciousness (AKA 5 cloaking principles):
“When Shiva wills to create, Abhinavagupta explains, it wraps a portion of itself in five kanchukas (cloaks or veils).” The 5 veils are: vidya, kala#1, raga, niyati, and kala #2 (29, 75-76) (cf. 4 stages of Spiritual Practice above)

5 Wonderful Precepts of Buddhism:
“Reverence for life, generosity, responsible sexual behavior, speaking and listening deeply, and ingesting only wholesome substances.” (10, p 91)

5 Elements:
“These five ‘elements’ pervade all things and underlie their manifest form.” The 5 elements are: “air, fire, water, and earth.” (6, p131)

8 Fold Path – Buddhism:
"The Noble Eightfold Path is composed of eight categories or divisions: 1. Right Understanding (Samma ditthi), 2. Right Thought (Samma sankappa) 3. Right Speech (Samma vara) 4. Right Action (Samma kammanta) 5. Right Livelihood (Samma ajira) 6. Right Effort (Samma vayama) 7. Right Mindfulness (Samma sati) 8. Right Concentration (Samma samadhi)" (34, 45)

Abhinivesa (cf. Klesa):
“Avidya is the root cause of the obstacles that prevent us from recognizing things as they really are. The obstacles are asmita (ego), raga (attachment), dvesa (refusal), and abhinivesa (fear).” (1, p 11-Figure 1)

Absolute Truth (Amatta) - Buddhism:
"According to Buddhism, the Absolute Truth is that there is nothing absolute in the world, that everything is relative, conditioned and impermanent, and that there is no unchanging, everlasting, absolute substance like Self, Soul or Atman within or without." (34, 39)

Adept’s Pose:
See "Siddhasana" (male) or Siddha yoni asana (female)

Agnisar Kriya:
Sit in vajrasana.... Open the mouth and extend the tongue from the mouth. Breathe rapidly in and out by contracting and expanding the abdomen.” (6, 107)

Ahimsa (1st yama):
Means “thoughtful consideration for others and things.” (1, p98) “Ahimsa has to do with our duties and responsibilities too.” (1, p98) Ahimsa is “noninjury, consideration, love; one of the yamas.” (1, p238) Ahimsa is “Non-harming, Gentleness, compassion, and love for all beings, including ourselves. Every word, thought or action that involves judgement, anger, greed, lust or attachment is a form of violence to be avoided.” (3, p1) Ahimsa is “non-injury, non-violence, harmlessness or absence of hostility.” (7, p19) We do violence when we “attempt to impress our will or beliefs onto others, or to prevent others from infringing on our own ideals and principles.” (7, p21) “If we are fully aware of violence as it is happening, and observe, without judgement or distraction, then in that full observation the root of violence is revealed, and in that understanding violence evaporates.” (7, p24)

Ajapa-Japa:
[Under “Awakening the Anahata Chakra] Ajapa-Japa “consists of awareness of the mantra SO during inhalation and HAM [pronouned humm] during exhalation.” (6, 123)

Akashi mudra (“Consciousness of inner space”):
“Sit in meditative pose and fold the tongue back against the palate, as in khechari mudra. Practice ujjayi pranayama and shambhavi mudra, with the head tilted back somewhat.” (6, p98)

Alternate Nostril Breathing:
See "Nadi Shodhan Pranayama"

Ama:
An ayurvedic term. “Undigested residue.... Energetically, ama lurks in the system as fatigue; mentally, ama creates dullness, irritability, attachment and greed.. And, according to ayurveda, accumulated ama is the breeding ground for disease.” (19, p68)

Amatta - Buddhism:
See "Absolute Truth" above

Anahata Chakra:
See “Chakras”

Ananda:
“I am not talking about pleasure or amusement when I mention happiness or joy. I mean bliss, ecstacy, rapture, felicity— what the sages of India call ananda.” (16, p24)

Vicara anugata samadhi:
Concentration on joy such as sense pleasures within the mind [ananda] which leads to or is followed by [anugata] samadhi [full, sustained concentration] (23, 48)

Antaranga kumbhaka:
See "Nadi Shodhan Pranayama"

Antaranga Trataka (cf bahiranga trataki):
Inner gazing at a chakra etc (6, p118)

Anupaya:
A state reached after following the other Stages of Spiritual Practice (see 4 Stages of Spiritual Practice above) when “the distinction between us and Shiva dissolves.” (29, 77)

Aparigraha:
Aparigraha means “non-attachment” (7, p47) “Attachment is rooted in our craving for continuity.” (7, p50) “The ego creates our prisons of continuity through the mechanism of attachment.” (7, p53) Aparigraha means “non-covetousness.” (7, p80)

Ardha Matsyendrasana (Half spinal twist pose):
See “Spinal Twists”

Ashram:
“forest academy" (30)

Ashvini mudra (“Horse mudra”):
Sit in meditation asana. Contract the sphincter muscles of anus for a few seconds, and then relax them for a few seconds. Repeat this process as many times as possible.” Stage 2: contract during inhalation. Retain the breath and hold the contraction, then exhale releasing the contraction (6, 99-100)

Asmita (cf. Klesa):
“Avidya is the root cause of the obstacles that prevent us from recognizing things as they really are. The obstacles are asmita (ego), raga (attachment), dvesa (refusal), and and abhinivesa (fear).” (1, p 11-Figure 1) The ego (asmita) is “the root of ignorance....The ego is the sense of ‘I’ as separate from the rest of the world.” (7, p67) The ego demands continuance...and this demand in turn leads to all the things we seek to eliminate.” (7, p75) “The ego-personality, which makes an island of each of us in the midst of a supposedly hostile world in which we have to struggle to survive (26, 24)

Asmita anugata samadhi:
Concentration on “our pure sense of I-am-ness” [asmita] which leads to or is followed by [anugata] samadhi [full, sustained concentration] (23, 48)

Asoka (Emperor Asoka) - Buddhism:
Third century B.C. Buddhist emperor who followed the "noble example of tolerance and understanding, honoured and supported all other religions in his vast empire." (34, 4)

Asteya (3rd yama):
Means “to take nothing that does not belong to us. This also means that if we are in a situation where someone entrusts something to us or confides in us, we do not take advantage of him or her.” (1, p99) Means “not coveting what belongs to others; one of the yamas.” (1, p238) “Asteya is not stealing or misappropriating what belongs to another. It is freedom from craving or desiring to possess or enjoy what belongs to another. It teaches us to be at peace with what we have.” (3, p1) “The Sanskrit word asteya literally means non-stealing, but many translators use the phrases ‘absence of jealously’ or ‘absence of envy.’” (7, p27) “We envy because we compare....We divide and classify the world and then compare ourselves to it. With each division we separate ourselves even more from the rest of humanity, and we become isolated.” (7, p28-29) There is no division between ourselves and the rest of the world. (7, p31)

Astral Body:
See “The three Bodies” at top

Atman:
“When a man knows that his Atman; Is the Atman in all creatures,; Then let him act,; Untainted by action.” (2, p 57) The yogi “should meditate on the Atman unceasingly.” (2, p65) “When we consider Brahman as lodged within the individual being, we call Him the Atman.” (2, p74) Sri Krishna: “The supreme Brahman in this body is also known as the Witness. It makes all our actions possible, and, as it were, sanctions them, experiencing all our experiences. It is the infinite Being, the supreme Atman.” (2, p103 ) Brahman does not exist but is existence itself.... Brahman is within all creatures and objects. When Brahman is in these things, He is known as Atman. The Atman and the Brahman are one.(2, pp 131-133)

Attachment:
See “Raga” and “Aprigraha”

Aum:
"Om Namah Shivaya, meaning, ‘I honor the divinity that resides within me’." (33, 25)

Avidaya (cf. Klesa):
“Avidya is the root cause of the obstacles that prevent us from recognizing things as they really are. The obstacles are asmita (ego), raga (attachment), dvesa (refusal), and and abhinivesa (fear).” (1, p 11-Figure 1)

Ayurveda:
“Ayurveda tells us that exercise should be fun, suited to our nature, and always comfortable.” (15, p) 22 “According to ayurvedic principles, exercise is most beneficial when experienced in the outdoors and in good company.” (15, p23)

Astral Body:
Seated forward bend - see Paschimottanasana

Back bend:
See "Hasta uttanasana"

Baddha yoni asana (Sense:-withdrawal meditative pose):
“This is an excellent asana for withdrawing the mind from the external world....This asana makes possible awareness of the different manifestations of the [“a primordial, unceasing sound or vibration”] sound through awareness of the psychic sounds.” Enhances “the physical benefits of padmasana [lotus] and siddhasana [adept’s].” [Meditative poses] (6, pp74-75)

Bahiranga Kumbhaka:
See "Nadi Shodhan Pranayama"

Bandhas:
“means to hold or tighten... the breath retention that always accompanies the bandhas causes prana to accumulate in the areas of mental concentration.” (6, p88)

Bahiranga trataki (cf. antaranga):
Outer gazing at a candle, moon, crystal etc. (6, p118)

Bellows breath:
See "Bhastrika pranayama"

Bhagya:
“Good fortune.” (14, 81)

Bhakti yoga:
Bhakti means “to serve a power greater than ourselves [Isvara]. This is the idea discussed in connection with the practice of isvarapranidhana.” (1, p135) In bhakti yoga “we offer all our thoughts and actions to this higher power.... We are completely devoted to [Isvara].” (1, p136)

Bhastrika pranayama (Bellows breath):
Breath rapidly and rhythmically through one nostril 20 times, retain breath in, exhale, switch nostrils and repeat - do 3 “sets” of this. This is “Stage 1.” Repeat entire process using both nostrils and with both hands on knees for “3 sets.” Good for asthma. “Digestion and appetite are stimulated. this pranayama induces tranquility of mind and is very helpful in awakening kundalini.” (6, p83-84)

Bhava:
“The eternal, unchanging reality.... Vishnu, represents bhava, pure consciousness.” (12, p62)
“Being. Mental Tendency.” (21, p 95 - Book’s dictionary)
“The eight Bhavas: Karann Buddhi
     - Freedom and Power (Aisvarya)
     - Perfect Objectivity (Vairagya)
     - Knowledge (Jnana)
     - Right Conduct (Dharma)
Karya Buddhi
     - Weakness (Anaisvarya)
     - Excessive Subjectivity (Raja) [attachment and greed]
     - Ignorance (Ajnana)
     - Evil Conduct (Adharma)” (21, p 13)
“Bhavas (latent states of the subconscious)” (21, p 14)
“Jnana aspect of Buddhi is both external and internal. (21, p 16)

“Internal Jnana can be obtained through Ekagrata (steady state of mind) (21, p 16); external through books.
Objectivity (Vairagya) is achieved by observation with a relaxed mind. Vairagya seems to be an objective understanding. (21, p 16)
Aisvarya (Freedom and Power) AKA Inner Strength or determination and control. “Aisvarya comes from within oneself.” (21, p 17)
The “Bhavas” help one overcome the Kleshas. (22, p.44)
Dharma, Jnana, Vairagya, Aishvarya are the Bhavas, the feelings which you have to generate...whenever you are doing asanas.”(22, p.47)
Dharma is duty. When doing asanas, “the state of quietude becomes our duty because without that experience, you wouldn’t be able to go further.... Self Direction, constantly directing ourselves, is our duty. Constantly developing our awareness is our duty. All those postures which help us to become introverted fall into this category of duty, Dharma. ” (22, p46) “Also find out if you are doing something which is not your duty. First duty is towards your self. Second is towards your near and dear, your children, your husband. Third is towards your work situation. Fourth is towards society and fifth is towards the nation.” (22, p.182)
Jnana is knowledge. “We have to know more about our own body, our own self. We have to understand our personality more and more.... All Asanas which require neuromuscular coordination and balance...deepen your concentration, then you will be able to progress faster. So, this is Jnana, which needs concentration, only with concentration and knowledge is it possible to gain a deeper understanding of yourself.”(22, p.46-47) Vairagya is a humbling pose to control ego. “All forward-bending postures go in this category where you are naturally trying to humble yourself.... This includes relaxation poses.”(22, p.47)
“Real love will only come when a person is totally disinterested in life, when Vairagya comes in.”(22, p.165)
Aishvarya is “willpower or self-reliance.” “So, all backward bending postures and all Kryas, like looking after your eyes or nose or ears etc.”(22, p.47)
Bhava is the creation or state of feeling in asanas. Bhava is the “aha” in asanas (LM, 1/9/05)
“Dharma Bhava: peaceful/accepting Asanas for Dharma Bhava: Meditative Sitting, calm mind, relaxed body Creates a sense of contentment, i.e., accepting, calmness peace and coming to peace with your life. An awareness of priorities, duties and responsibilities. (L.M., 1/8/05)
Ask students how they feel after a few minutes of relaxation/meditation
Create Bhava of calmness for a few seconds before each asana
Savasana - only for 2-10 minutes at beginning of class - then move into asanas.” (L.M., 1/9/05)
First four Bhavas: Dharma Bhava (quiet, peaceful-meditative postures); Jyana (awareness of muscles and breath); Vairagya (feeling of surrender or “letting go” and dedication to your beliefs including physical, spiritual etc - forward-bending postures, relaxation); Aishwarya Bhava (a state of determination or will power - cobra and other back-bending asanas) (L.M., 1/8/05)
FOUR VEDIC CONCEPTS (BHAVAS) OF TEACHING YOGA
1. Jnana - Body-Mind-Breath awareness as you do asanas
2. Dharma - Calm Mind - Relaxed Body - Meditative State
     - Accepting life as it is
     - Awareness of duties and responsibilities
     - Butterfly, Lotus, Sidasana
3. Wairagya (“vi-rha-gya”) - Letting go: releasing the ego/gaining humility/releasing attachments (Wairagya leads to the state of Aishwayia, #4)
4. Aishwayia (“ish-wah-ya”) - The state of absolute focus, concentration
     - Achievement - skill
     - Increases self control
     - Increases will power of godliness
     - From Ishwaarya (as in “Ishvaryapranidhana”) - Becoming “godlike” Becoming omniscient, omnipotent, reaching perfection (L.M., 4/17/06)
[As Dharma-Bhava] “A state of quietness and peacefulness, especially when meditating. In asanas, it is reflected or supported by the meditative poses. The mental state of calmness and peace; the acceptance of life. An awareness of one’s personal priorities, duties and responsibilities.” (20 - 1/9/2005)

Bhavat:
“The impermanent, continually changing world of the mind and the senses.... Lakshmi stands for bhavat, the infinite universe in continual flux.” (12, p62)

Bhu Namanasana (Spinal twist prostration pose):
See “Spinal Twists”

Bhujangani (snake breathing):
Belch several times taking air into the stomach, holding it and then releasing it. “The whole stomach is toned, stagnant gases are eliminated, and gastric disorders improve.” (6, p99)

Bhujangasana (“Cobra Pose”):
“Concentrate on the vishuddhi chakra [#5 throat] “This asana tones the ovaries and uterus, and is helpful in the cure of female disorders such as leukorrhea, dysmenorrhea, and ameneorrhea. It is also beneficial for all the abdominal organs, especially the liver and kidneys.” (6, pp60-61)

Bodhisatva:
In Buddhism, an Enlightened Buddhist monk” (L.M., 1/8/05)

Bow Pose:
See "Dhanurasana"

Brahma:
“Hinduism has further personified the three functions or aspects of Ishwara as Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva. Brahma represents the divine function of creation, Vishnu preservation, and Shiva dissolution.” (2, p 132)
“The legend behind the existence of tantra yoga is that it was created and taught to mankind by the Lord Shiva. Lord Shiva, known as the Destroyer, ranks with Lord Brahma, the Creator, and Lord Vishnus, the Maintainer, as one of the three great Gods of Indian religious teaching. the tantra yoga given by Shiva provides the means whereby a man can transcend himself and attain a state of being unified with and equal to that of God, the Absolute, Himself.” (6, p21)

Brahma bela:
“In the yoga tradition the period before sunrise is known as brhama bela (the time pervaded with higher consciousness). (17, p32)

Brahmacarya (4th yama):
“Moderation. Brahmacarya teaches us to be moderate and mindful and develop strength. It is most often associated with celibacy. Most of us do not commit to long-term celibacy – at least not by choice. We can follow its teaching by not indulging in wanton emotional, sensual or sexual excesses. When we do engage in sexuality, we can experience it as a union of Divine beings and a sacred act.” (3, p1)
“The real question is...why sex has taken such an important, central role in our lives.” (7, p35)
“A more appropriate translation [for Brahmacarya] may be “not being sensual,” for sensuality, not sexuality is the core issue.” (7, p36)
To adhere to the principles of Brahmacarya, we must experience a “fundamental change of being: the change that brings us to understanding and to the full flowering of life as lived in the present moment.” (7, p41)
“Brahmacarya or moderation in all things (control of the senses). also refers to celibacy. (7, p80)

Brahman:
“Brahman is the total Godhead. It can never be defined or expressed....Brhman is within all creatures and objects.... When Brahman is considered in relation to this universe, He is regarded as a personal God, Ishwara. Ishwara is God with attributes.” (2, p131)

Breathing:
“Conscious breathing is the most basic Buddhist practice for touching peace.” (10, p 16) “Training ourselves in the art of mindful breathing is crucial for knowing how to take care of our emotions.” (10, p 103)

Buddhist - Buddhism:
"If one understands the Buddha’s teaching, and if one is convinced that his teaching is the right Path and if one tries to follow it, then one is a Buddhist." (34, 80)

Conditioning:
CONDITIONING (Application): “The quality of work done in school depends upon the mental readiness of the students for work. The first requisite is therefore basic conditioning of the mind of the student to be receptive to the experience available in school.” (21, p23)
CONDITIONING: “This withdrawal of oneself from the outside world and the achievement of an emotional calm is called conditioning.”(21, p21)
CONDITIONING: “The meditative postures are introduced in the beginning of Yoga practice for the purpose of conditioning.” (21, p21)
CONDITIONING: “a) A very simple practice is Sukhasana....be aware of the different parts of the body. The attention should be taken to the breath.” (21, p25)
CONDITIONING: “b) Sthitaprarthansasana [a standing meditative pose] is another such technique.” (21, p25)
CONDITIONING: “Techniques of conditioning other than meditative Asanas:
a) Looking at a large expanse of water..or the sky...or being in natural surroundings with lot of greenery around. (21, p24)
b) Listening (passively) to the sounds of ...water...or ...birds.” (21, p24)
c) Reading, listening or talking about stories which illustrate the theme of self-confidence can make the mind ready for learning. (21, p24)
d) To view drawings, paintings, or pictures of gentle creatures.... (21, p24)
e) Prayers are also a good conditioning method. (21, p24)
1. CONDITIONING: “Before beginning the study of Yoga one must avoid all disturbing elements.” (21, p25)
2. CONDITIONING: “The next step is to reserve a special place for the Yoga study and to insist on fixed times and regularity of practice.” (21, p25)
3. CONDITIONING: “build up a healthy environment by shutting off all thoughts except those of Yoga.” (21, p25)
Stages of introducing Dharma CONDITIONING to a child (21, p 27-29)
“Stage I: At an earlier stage stories could be told or read to the children which are about the importance of correct posture.... At the same time it would help if the children are given to understand and appreciate gentleness and calmness with the help of stories.”
“Stage II: The children could be encouraged to observe the natural surroundings and appreciate the beauty around. They should be made to become more caring and gentle towards living things in general.”
“Stage III: Techniques of Sukhasana and other meditative poses could be gradually introduced.”
“Stage IV: Children could now be instructed to carry out certain routines every morning which help them to be conditioned.”
“Stage V: [Children should] list ten positive qualities they posses.” Then study each quality.
“Stage VI: It can become a habit to consciously condition oneself to remain calm and clear headed.”
CONDITIONING: “Through the conditioning process the individual gets rid of his negativity and acquires a calm, stable and well-balanced state.” (21, p 20)
CONDITIONING: “Conditioning enables one to strengthen one’s faith. It rids one of negative thoughts and emotions and makes the mind free of confusion, agitation, inaction, and tension. It helps one to foresee difficulties and thus be prepared to face [them].” (21, p 22)
CONDITIONING: “Faith gives the student the necessary calm to tackle intellectual problems.” (21, p 22)

Causal Body:
See “The three Bodies” at top

Chakras:
“A chakra works as a center of interchange between the physical and the astral, and between the astral and the causal dimensions.” (6, p23)
“Seven wheel-like energy centers that spin at the inner core of each one of us. These chakras are the centers of activity for the reception, assimilation and transmission of life energies. The chakras are the master programs that govern our life, loves, learning and illumination. Like a rainbow bridge, they form the connecting channel between mind and body, spirit and matter, past and future, Heaven and Earth. They are real, electromagnetic fields that are related to endocrine glands, emotions, elements and colors.
Chakras are also called lotuses, symbolizing the unfolding of flower petals, which metaphorically describes the opening of a chakra. Like flowers, chakras can be open or closed, dying or budding, depending upon the state of consciousness within. Chakras were first associated with a Goddess called Kundalini. She is described as a sleeping serpent coiled three and a half times around the first chakra at the base of the spine.
In Hindu traditions, this Goddess, when awakened, climbs upward, chakra by chakra, until she reaches the crown chakra at the tip of the head. As she pierces each chakra, she brings awakening to her subject. When her journey is complete, her subject is said to be fully enlightened.
The path through the chakras forms a vertical column, called Sushumna. There are two channels that wind their way up the Sushumna. Ida is the left channel. It is feminine in nature. Pingala is the right channel and is considered masculine in nature. The Caduceus, our modern symbol for healing, traces the path of the chakras and Ida and Pingala.
The endocrine glands, like the chakras, form a synergy that has sweeping effects on the body, mind, and spirit. An endocrine gland is an oddly shaped group of cells that secretes into the blood stream tiny amounts of the hormones it produces.” (4, p78)
“Seventh or Crown Chakra: Pineal Gland
The endocrine gland at the crown of the head, the pineal, senses change in season and the amount of light we are exposed to, both natural and artificial. This affects mood and immunity. Shaped like a pinecone but the size of a teardrop, the pineal gland is protected deep under the brain, straight back from the eyes.
The color most often associated with the crown chakra is a radiant violet, symbolizing what some call the soul – that which is in touch with all creation. Metaphysically the lotus flower is associated with the pineal. Hindu deities are often depicted with the “thousand petaled” lotus on the crown of the head.
Sixth Chakra or Third Eye: Hypothalamus and Pituitary
Located under the pineal, the hypothalamus and pituitary glands are anatomically very close, although they make different hormones and have different tasks. In the hypothalamus, electrical information from the nervous system is integrated with chemical information from the bloodstream. A blobby cluster in charge of pituitary function, the hypothalamus also senses the body’s need: temperature, hunger, thirst, and sex drive. [Color is Indigo.]
The pituitary is pea-sized but mighty. Known as the master gland, it acts like a foreman, telling other glands what to do and when. The hypothalamus lies close to our emotional center, the limbic region, and a shadowy area where smell evokes memory, where daydreams trigger a racing heart. It is associated with the third eye where sight is inward.
Fifth or Throat Chakra: Thyroid Gland
The hormones in the thyroid gland regulate the rate of metabolism, or how fast we burn our fuel. This butterfly-shaped cluster of cells located at the base of the throat, weighing less than one ounce, converts the mineral iodine into the hormone thyroxine. The thyroid plays a role in communication, since its size and health lowers the voice or raises its pitch. The throat chakra is where the voice comes from, and for this reason it is associated with the element air, the medium in which sound is made. Traditionally the blue of the sky – open and clear, represents the throat chakra.
Fourth or Heart Chakra: Thymus Gland
The thymus gland, located behind the heart, makes the hormone thymosin. In early childhood, bone marrow cells migrate to the thymus gland, where they change into immune cells. In traditional medicine around the world, heart and immunity are not seen as separate functions. Touching the area near the breastbone is said to stimulate our courage or give us “heart.”
The color associated with the heart chakra is a deep midsummer green. Like the garden of an open heart, green symbolizes compassion for us, for those in our lives and for others sharing the earth.
Third or Solar Plexus Chakra: Pancreas and Gastrointestinal Tract
Two endocrine centers reside in the midsection of the torso: the pancreas and separate groups of hormone-producing glands in the gastrointestinal tract. The physical function of these centers concerns digestive tone, but this area of the body is also linked with our emotional tone.
The color associated with the Third Chakra is the bright yellow of the sun, representing the enlightenment of consciousness shining [in] one’s belly, where we claim our own personal power.
Second or Sex Chakra: Adrenals
The adrenals, two glands which sit atop the kidneys in the lower back, are often grouped in traditional wisdom with the sex organs: the ovaries in women and the testes in men. These centers, quite different in their physiological effects, are integral to healthy energy and creative expression.
The Second Chakra is traditionally associated with the element water and the realm of the emotions, ruled by the moon with its strong pull on the tides. The color is the warm orange of a harvest moon, washing the creative centers.
First or Root Chakra: Pheromones
At the base of the spine near the anus, an area traditionally associated with the root chakra and the primal energy of life, are scattered small glands which produce scents in the form of pheromones. These help us know subconsciously if someone smells healthy of ill, attractive or uninteresting.
The Root Chakra is associated with survival – being grounded in one’s physical body. The color is red like the fire at the center of the planet itself.” (4, pp78-80)
Muladhara Chakra - Root Chakra - “In the area of the coccyx. Perceived as a disc of red light. Controls the genito-urinary system.” (6, p24)
Svadhishthana Chakra - “3-5 centimeters below the navel, usually perceived as a disc of vermillion light. Also controls the genito-urinary system.” (6, p24)
Manipura Chakra - Navel Chakra - “Around the navel. Perceived as a disc of blue or green light.” (6, p24)
Anahata Chakra - Heart Chakra - “Near the intersection of the median line and a line connecting the two nipples. Also called the heart chakra. Perceived as a disc of intense red or golden light. Controls the heart.” (6, p25)
Vishuddhi Chakra - Throat Chakra - “In the throat. Perceived as a disc of violet light. Controls the respiratory organs.” (6, p25)
Ajna Chakra - Third eye - “Between the eyebrows. Commonly known as the third eye. Perceived as a disc of white light of great intensity. This chakra controls the secretory functions of the pituitary gland as well as intellectual activities. It si said that when his chakra is awakened one meets one’s own divine self, i.e., the True Self.” (6, p25)
Satyananda recommends that the practitioner first attempt to activate the ajna chakra before any other.” (6, 210)
Saharara Chakra - Crown Chakra - “Located at the top of the head. This chakra is in overall control of every aspect of the body and mind. When the ‘Gate of Brahman’ in this chakra is opened, one can leave the physical body and enter the realms of the astral or the causal. This chakra is perceived as a large disc of golden or rosy light.” (6, p25)

Chin lock:
See "Jalandhara bandha"

Cobra Pose:
See "Bhujangasana"

Complete Yogic Breath:
“Yogic breathing [complete yogic breath] is not pranayama itself but a preliminary practice, and should be practiced naturally throughout the day.” (6, p79)

Cooling Breaths:
See "Shitali Pranayama and Shitakari Pranayama"

Deva:
“Literally means ‘bright being’; it also means that which shines, one who brings light to this world; one who illuminates everything that exists, one who is self-luminous.” (27, 30)

Dhanurasana (Bow Pose):
“Concentrate on the vishuddhi chakra.” [#5 throat] - Relieves “gastro-intestinal disorders such as chronic constipation and dyspepsia. It is useful in cases of liver malfunction, and can also reduce excess fat in the abdominal area.” (6, 61-62)

Dharma:
[As Dharma-Bhava] “A state of quietness and peacefulness, especially when meditating. In asanas, it is reflected or supported by the meditative poses. The mental state of calmness and peace; the acceptance of life. An awareness of one’s personal priorities, duties and responsibilities.” (20 - 1/9/2005)
[As law or guideline] “The law of personal conduct. One should ‘uphold yourself’ by doing your duty. For example, doing one’s duty as husband to oneself and one’s spouse. Dharma is also the awareness of one’s duties according to the roles you accept in your society.” (20 - 1/9/2005)
[As law or guideline] “Dharma is one’s true nature. One’s true duty is to ‘know thyself’.” (20 - 1/9/2005)
“Dharma is a system of moral ends that fulfill themselves through the mechanical systems and order of nature – custom or nature.” (21, p15)
Right Conduct (Dharma) (21, p13)
“The cultivation of a code of conduct was more important in ancient Indian education than the achievement of skills or advancement in the cognitive domain.” (21, p20) “The term ‘duty’... is impossible clearly to define....It is not the thing done that defines a duty.” (24, p52-53)
Duty: “Any action that makes us go Godward is a good action, and is our duty; any action that makes us go downward is evil and is not our duty.” (24, p53)
“The idea of duty varies much among different nations.” (24, p14)
“There are gradations of duty and of morality.” (24, p15)
Two ways to approach duty: “The way of the ignorant who think that there is only one way to truth.” 14 “The way of the wise who admit that, according to our mental constitution or the different planes of existence in which we are, duty and morality may vary.” (24, p15)
“Our duty is to encourage everyone in his struggle to live up to his own highest ideal, and strive at the same time to make the ideal as near as possible to the truth.” (24, p21)
“This is one part of the doctrine of Karma-Yoga— activity, the duty of the householder.” (24, p29)
“‘fearlessness’--- fear nothing. Fear is a sign of weakness. A man must go about his duties without taking notice of the sneers and the ridicule of the world.” (24, p29) 1st duty is Ishvarapranidhana: “The householder should be devoted to God, the knowledge of God should be his goal of life. Yet he must work constantly, perform all his duties; he must give up the fruits of his actions to God.” (24, p22-23)
2nd duty is to family (24, p23-25)
“He must struggle hard to acquire these things— first knowledge, and secondly, wealth...A householder who does not struggle to get wealth is immoral...Going after wealth in such a case is not bad, because that wealth is for distribution.” (24, p27) “Become rich by good means and for good purposes is doing practically the same thing for the attainment of salvation as the anchorite does.” (24, p28)
3rd duty is to community:
“Then his duties are towards the people of the same village, and the poor, and anyone that [sic] comes to him for help.” (24, p25)
“The householder must speak the truth and speak gently, using words which people like, which will do good to others; not should he talk of the business of other men.” (24, p28)
Sanatana dharma: “Sanatana means ‘that which is eternal’; dharma means ‘virtue, righteousness, moral order, and way of life.’ Sanatana dharma is the eternal law— live in accordance with natural law so that you receive nurturance from your roots.” (27, 30) Sanatana dharma: “Live in conformity with natural laws. Hear and heed the voice of your heart. Do what is best for you and vest for others without killing your conscience” (27, 30)

Dhyana:
In Buddhism, dhyana is the state "which is free from sensations both pleasant (sukha) and unpleasant (dukkha) and is only pure equanimity and awareness" yet is considered "dukkha" because it is impermanent. (34, 18)
Buddhism - "Dhyana, generally called trance or recueillement. In the first stage of Dhyana, passionate desire and certain unwholesome thoughts like sensuous lust, ill-will, languor, worry, restlessness, and skeptical doubt are discarded, and feelings of joy and happiness are maintained, along with certain mental activities. In the second stage, all intellectual activities are suppressed, tranquility and ‘one-pointedness’ of mind developed, and the feelings of joy and happiness are still retained. In the third stage, the feeling of joy, which is an active sensation, also disappears, while the disposition of happiness still remains in addition to mindful equanimity. In the fourth stage of Dhyana, all sensations, even of happiness and unhappiness, of joy and sorrow, disappear, only pure equanimity and awareness remaining." (34, 49)

Discipline:
"Sincere spiritual investigation is, and has always been, an endeavor of methodical discipline." (33, 2)

Divali (Diwali):
The Festival of Light. A major Hindu festival (L.M., 1/8/05)

Dukkha:
In Buddhism, "the term dukkha in the First Noble Truth contains, quite obviously, the ordinary meaning of ‘suffering’, but in addition it also includes deeper ideas such as ‘imperfection’, ‘impermanence’, ‘emptiness’, ‘unsubstantiality’. (34, 17) In Buddhism, "Dukkha arises because of ‘thirst’ (tanha), and it ceases because of wisdom (panna)." (34, 42)

Durga:
The god who helps someone reduce the evil within them. With his 8 arms, each with a different weapon, she destroys the evil within you. “Dur” means negative thinking and “ga” means going away. (L.M., 1/8/05)

Duty:
“Do your duty, always; but without attachment. That is how a man reaches the ultimate Truth; by working without anxiety about results.” (2, p46-7) [cf Ishvarapranidhana] Sri Krishna: “But when a man performs an action which is sanctioned by the scriptures, and does it for duty’s sake only, renouncing all attachment and desire for its fruits, then his renunciation is inspired by sattwa.” (2, p120)

Dvesa (cf. Klesa):
“Avidya is the root cause of the obstacles that prevent us from recognizing things as they really are. The obstacles are asmita (ego), raga (attachment), dvesa (refusal), and abhinivesa (fear).” (1, p 11-Figure 1)

Eating:
“In Buddhist monasteries, we eat our meals in silence to make it easier to give our full attention to the food and to the other members of the community who are present. And we chew each morsel of food thoroughly, at least thirty times, to help us be truly in touch with it. Eating this way is very good for digestion.” (10, p 27)

Ego:
See "Asmita"

Eightfold Path - Buddhism:
See "8 Fold Path" above

Ekam Sat (“One Truth”):
Ekam sat, vipra bahudha vadanti, a Vedic proverb tells us: Truth is One; the wise express it in many ways.” (13, p69)

Emperor Asoka (Asoka) - Buddhism:
See "Asoka" above

Enlightenment:
See “Nirvana”

Fainting breath/pranayama:
See "Murcha Pranayama"

Female accomplished Pose or Adept’s Pose:
See "Siddha yoni asana"

Fish Pose:
See "Matsyasana"

Food:
See “Eating”

Forward bend:
See "Pada hastasana"

Gana:
“Sense organ” which may have “unwholesome attachments to external objects.” (13, 72)

God:
"To know God, you need only to renounce one thing — your sense of division from God." (33,192)
The fourth level of human consciousness, turiya, "simply God, [may] report your dreams back to you.... And if you can move into that state of witness consciousness, then you can be present with God all the time." (33,196)

Greed:
See “Raga” and “Aprigraha”

Gross Body:
See “The three Bodies” at top

Gunas:
Sri Krishna: “When sattwa prevails; Over rajas, tamas,; Man feels sattwa:; When rajas prevails; Over sattwa, tamas,; Man is seized by that rajas:; When tamas prevails; Over rajas, sattwa,; Man yields to that tamas.; When understanding; Shines in through the senses,; The doors of the body:; Know sattwa is present.; In greed, in the heat of action,; In eager enterprise,; In restlessness, in all desire,; Know rajas the ruler.” (2, p108)
Sri Krishna: “But when a man performs an action which is sanctioned by the scriptures, and does it for duty’s sake only, renouncing all attachment and desire for its fruits, then his renunciation is inspired by sattwa.” (2, p120)
“But when the conscience cannot distinguish truly between right and wrong, or know what should and what should not be done, then it has the nature of rajas.” (2, p124)
“Prakriti is said to be composed of 3 gunas: sattwa (the pure and fine), rajas (action) and tamas (solidity/resistance). In the mind of man, sattwa expresses itself psychologically as tranquility, purity and calmness; rajas as passion, restlessness, aggressive activity; tamas as stupidity, laziness, inertia. The ultimate ideal is to transcend all gunas and reach the Atman, which is above and beyond the gunas.” (2, pp133-4.)
“Within the causal body, the three gunas (qualities)–sattva (purity, wisdom, peace), rajas (activity, passion), and tamas (inertia, lethargy)–exist in a harmonious state of perfect equilibrium. However, in the astral and physical bodies, this balance among the gunas is lost.” (6, p132)
“The best metaphor for gunas is gardening. The way you increase sattvic is by feeding the satvic state: Sattvic food, soft speech, routine, calm mind, calm people, positive thinking, friendliness, compassion, joy in the joy of others, indifference to evil, avoid tamasic and rajasic food and people. (L.M., 1/8/05)
Guna Food: Sattvic: yoga tea, small and sprouted beans, well-cooked rice, wheat, 2% milk, yogurt, all fresh vegetables and fruits.
Tamasic: red meats, fried foods, alcohol, oily food, onion, garlic, canned fruits and vegetables, spicy foods, coffee. Avoid excessive amounts of food.
Rajasic: chicken, fish, whole milk, medium to large beans, medium to hard to digest foods, slightly excessive amounts, frozen vegetables and fruits. (L.M., 1/8/05)

Guru:
"A great Yogi is anyone who has achieved the permanent state of enlightened bliss. A Guru is a great Yogi who can actually pass that state on to others. The word Guru is composed of two Sanskrit syllables. The first means ‘darkness,’ the second means ‘light’. Out of the darkness and into the light." (33, 123)

Gurugita:
"An excerpt from a holy ancient scripture of Yoga called the Skanda Purana. The Gurugita is 182 verses long... [and] takes about an hour and a half to perform." (33, 161)

Halasana (Plow/Plough Pose):
A variation is to move arms overhead from basic pose and clasp toes, then return to basic pose. “Concentrate on the vishuddhi [#5 throat] or manipura [#3 navel] chakra.” “Halasana regulates the functioning of the abdominal organs, especially the kidneys , liver, and pancreas, and activates digestion. It can alleviate constipation and also slim the waist area.” (6, pp63-64)

Ham-sa:
"In Sanskrit means ‘I am that.’ The Yogis say Ham-sa is the most natural mantra, the one we are all given by God before birth. It is the sound of our own breath. Ham on the inhale, sa on the exhale." (33, 141)

Hasta uttanasana (Back bend):
“Concentrate on the vishuddhi chakra for one or two seconds, then go into pada hastasana.” (6, p55)

Ida (cf. Pingala and sushumna):
“The ida and pingala start at the muladhara ad spiral about the sushumna up to the ajna, intersecting at each chakra along the way.... The ida is said to start from the left side of the muladhara, passing through the left nostril on its way to ajna.” (6, 143)

Indra:
In the Vedas, Indra is described as “the king of the gods...the blond-haired celestial warrior who sends rain and controls the lightning and thunder.” (18, p62)

Indriyas:
“The five senses.” (18, p66)

Ishwara (Isvara)[cf. “Javaveda” and “Deva”]:
When Brahman is considered in relation to this universe, He is regarded as a personal God, Ishwara. Ishwara is God with attributes. Ishwara is Brahman united with His power. Ishwara creates this universe as Brahma, preserves it as Vishnu and destroys it as Shiva. (2, pp 131-133)
Isvara is “the highest divine being.” (1, p129)
Isvara is “God or Lord.” (1, p239)
“Yielding to [Isvara] is an expression of a belief that something exists that is higher than ourselves.” (1, p130)
“Whenever we say OM, we mean Isvara.” (1, p131)
“If you want to have a special relationship with [Isvara], you a special symbol that represents him. This symbol is the sound OM. The more we recite OM, ... the more we will come to know Isvara.” (1, p129)
“Hinduism has further personified the three functions or aspects of Ishwara as Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva. Brahma represents the divine unction of creation, Vishnu preservation, and Shiva dissolution.” (2, p 132)
“Ishvara means one who is capable of doing what it plans to do, one who cannot be manipulated into doing that which has already been done. Such an unrestricted power of action is called God.” (27, 30)

Isvarapranidhana:
“Turning to Isvara for help is called isvarapranidhana.” (1, p130)

Jagrat:
From the Lakshmi Tantra: “the waking state...your mind is lucid and your five senses are directed outward toward the external world.” (12, p64)

Jainism:
Jainism begins with a serious concern for the human soul in its relationship with the laws governing existence in the universe, with other living beings, and to its own future state in eternity. First and foremost, it is a religion of the heart: the golden rule is Ahimsa or nonviolence in all parts of a person-- mental, verbal, and physical. Jains have deep compassion for all forms of life (internet source)

Jalandhara bandha (Chin lock):
During breath retention, “press the chin tightly against the top of the sternum... useful for removing or reducing stress, anxiety, and anger, and is an excellent premeditation practice” (6, p89)

Jivatma:
“The individual soul in each person.” (6, p96)

Jnana mudra:
“Place hands on knees with the palms turned down and the three unbent fingers and thumb of each hand pointing at the floor in from of the feet...The index finger represents the jivatma (the individual soul in each person)” (6, p96)

Jnana Yoga:
Jnana yoga is “the search for real knowledge. Traditionally, this search begins by listening to the words of a teacher who explains the old yoga texts to his or her students. This is followed by reflection, discussion with others, and clarification of doubtful points, which leads to the gradual recognition of the truth and merging with it.”

Khaki mudra (Crow beak):
“Sit in a meditational pose and make a narrow tube b pursing the lips...inhale slowly and deeply through the mouth and then slowly exhale through the nose.” Effective in awakening the muladhara chakra and for cooling the whole body.” (6, 100-101)

Kandasthana:
“A spherical region around the navel enclosing the manipura chakra.” (6, p24) The kandasthana is the place where “the prana for the physical body enters from higher dimensions.” (6, p24)

Karma:
(1) Work, deed
(2) Effect of a deed
(3) Law of causation governing action and its effects in the physical and psychological plane. (2, p39 [footnote]
) Sri Krishna: “If your heart is united with me, you will be set free from karma even in this life, and come to me at the last.” (2, p84)
“The word Karma is derived from the Sanskrit Kri, to do; all action is Karma. Technically, this word also means the effects of actions.” (24, p1)
“Any work, any action, any thought that produces an effect is called a Karma.” (24, p97) "The theory of karma is the theory of cause and effect, of action and reaction; it is a natural law, which has nothing to do with the idea of justice or reward and punishment." (34, 32)
“The literal meaning of karma (as we encountered it in karma yoga) is work, but as a doctrine it means, roughly, the moral law of cause and effect.” (25, 64)

Karmashaya:
“Karma container” where “past deeds are stored” and is “part of our subtle body.” It is “carried with us from life to life.” (14, p80)

Karma Yoga:
The yogi of action is the karma yogi. Mahatma Gandhi was a karma yogi. In a comment on the Gita, Gandhi defined the perfect karma yogi: “He is a devotee who is jealous of none, who is a found of mercy, who is without egotism, who is selfless, who treats alike cold and heat, happiness or misery, who is ever forgiving, who is always contented, whose resolutions are firm, who has dedicated mind and soul to God, who causes no dread, who is not afraid of others, who is free from exultation, sorrow and fear, who is pure, who is versed in action yet remains unaffected by it, who renounces all fruit, good or bad, who treats friend and foe alike, who is untouched by respect or disrespect, who is not puffed up by praise, who does not go under when people speak ill of him, who loves silence and solitude, who has a disciplined reason. Such devotion is inconsistent with the existence at the same time of strong attachments.” (2, p142)
Karma Yoga is the path of selfless, God-dedicated action. (2, P39 [footnote])
“If you cannot become absorbed in me, then try to reach me by repeated concentration. If you lack the strength to concentrate, then devote yourself to works which will please me.” (2, p98)
“All work becomes equally and vitally important. It is only toward the results of work–success or failure, praise or blame–that he remains indifferent.” (2, p 139)
But in Karma-Yoga we have simply to do with the word Karma as meaning work. (24, p1)
“Karma-Yoga, therefore, is a system of ethics and religion intended to attain freedom through unselfishness and by good works.” (24, p121)

Keshin:
“The long-haired ascetic...[but]...can also refer to the sun.” (11, p28)

Khechari mudra (Tongue lock):
“Close the mouth and roll the tongue backwards so that the underside of the tongue touches the back of the palate. Take the tongue-tip as far back as possible without strain...and hold it there for as long as possible...This mudra has a subtle influence on the human body. There are various pressure points and glands in the cavity behind the palate which have extensive control over the activities of the body, and the secretions from these are stimulated by the folded tongue. Saliva is also produced, which removes feelings of thirst and hunger...the mudra helps to awaken the kundalini shakti, and also to preserve the vital energy of the body...When perfected, this practice can cause detachment of the astral body from the physical...This mudra is regarded as very important in the ancient yoga texts.” (6, 101-102)

Klesa (Klesha):
Translated by Desikachar as “Obstacles.” The Yoga Sutras name 5 obstacles: avidya, asmita, raga, dvesa, abhinivesa (1, p 165-6)

Krya Upaya:
One of the 4 Stages of Spiritual Practice (see above) Physical techniques which “include hatha yoga, postures, breathing exercises, selfless service, ritual worship, pilgrimage, fasting, and other techniques involving our body and physical actions.” (29, 76)

Kriya yoga:
“The yoga that we are practicing” [in this book] (1, p80) “Yoga of purifying action as taught by Patanjali.” p240 “The Yoga Sutra describes [kriya yoga] as the whole spectrum of practices known as yoga. Everything that we can actually practice is kriya yoga, and the Yoga Sutra names three aspects that together define kriya yoga: tapas, svadyaya, and isvarapranidhana.” Prabhavananda, Swami and Christopher Isherwood. The Song of God Bhagavad-Gita. The New American Library, Inc. N.Y. 1972.

Kundalini (Yoga):
“At the physical level, kundalini manifests as a higher voltage of energy conducted throughout the nervous system.” (6, p8)
“The awakening of kundalini is an experience which accelerates an individual toward the conscious fulfillment of his purpose in life.” (6, p8-9)
“A transcendental source of energy.” (6, 14)
“Kundalini awakening is indispensable for true chakra awakening.” (6, p41)
“Leadbeater emphatically stresses the need to develop selfless love and to devote time and energy to the betterment of society before indulging in practice designed to awaken the kundalini.” (6, 207) Rev. Charles Webster Leadbeater: The Chakras (pub. 1927) born in England 1847.

Lakshmi:
“To the common people, she is the goddess of wealth and good fortune.... But to yogis, Lakshmi...stands for bhavat, the infinite universe in continual flux, while Lakshmi’s divine husband, Vishnu, represents bhava, pure consciousness.” (12, p62)

Lakshmi Tantra:
“A voluminous text full of spiritual techniques, written somewhere between 800 and 1100 A.D. It begins with description of Anasuya, one of the most famous female masters in yoga history.” (12, p62)

Law (of nature):
Law: “The expectation that a particular phenomenon will be followed by another, and that the series will repeat itself.” (24, p98)

Leg spread variation:
Variation of seated forward bend - see Paschimottanasana

Madhyama (cf Vaikhari, Madhyama, Pashyanti, Para):
“Madhyama is mental speech, verbalized but unspoken, the internal monologue and dialogue.” (13, 70)

Mahayana - Buddhism:
The Great Vehicle - "That form of Buddhism which reigns from Tibet to the Far East." (34, ix)

Male accomplished Pose:
See "Siddhasana"

Manipura Chakra:
See “Chakras”

Many paths:
There is one truth but many paths.(Satchedenanda) “But it does not matter what deity a devotee chooses to worship. If he has faith, I make his faith unwavering. Endowed with the faith I give him, he worships that deity, and gets from it everything he prays for. In reality, I alone am the giver.” (2, p73)
Sri Krishna: “Some bow to the countless gods that are only; My million faces.” (2, p81)
“If you cannot become absorbed in me, then try to reach me by repeated concentration. If you lack the strength to concentrate, then devote yourself to works which will please me.” (2, p98)
“Hinduism accepts the belief in many divine incarnations, including Krishna, Buddha and Jesus, and foresees that there will be many more.” (2, p 133)
“When we believe that ours is the only faith that contains the truth, violence and suffering will surely be the result.” (10, p 2)

Matsyasana (Fish Pose):
“useful for abdominal illness. Constipation sufferers seeking relief should do this asana after drinking three glasses of water. It is also useful for those who suffer from lung ailments such as asthma or bronchitis, as it encourages deep respiration.” (6, pp64-65)

Meditation (See also Vipassana below):
“As he [the yogi] sits there, he is to hold his senses and imagination in check, and keep the mind concentrated upon its object. If he practices meditation in this manner, his heart will become pure.” (2, p65)
“Make a habit of practicing meditation, and do not let your mind be distracted.” (2, p75)
“If you cannot become absorbed in me, then try to reach me by repeated concentration. If you lack the strength to concentrate, then devote yourself to works which will please me.” (2, p98)
“Meditation is not a drug to make us oblivious to our real problems. It should produce awareness in us and also in our society.” (10, p 76)
“In the Buddhist tradition, there is the practice of walking meditation...we walk in a way that brings us calm., stability, and joy with each step.” (10, p 175-6)
“The purpose of meditation practice is not enlightenment; it is to pay attention even at unextraordinary times, to be of the present, nothing-but-the-present, to bear this mindfulness of now into each event of ordinary life.” (From The Snow Leopard by Peter Matthiessen)

Meditation Poses:
See Padmasana (Lotus Pose & ½ Lotus Pose), Siddhasana (Male accomplished Pose), Siddhasana (Adept’s Pose), Siddha yoni asana (Female accomplished pose), Baddha yoni asana (Sense-withdrawal meditative pose)

Mindfulness:
“Mindfulness–the energy that helps us know what is happening in the present moment.” (10 p 175) “In Buddhism, religious practice begins with mindfulness.” (10, p 180)

Mountain Pose:
See "Tadasana"

Mudras:
cf jnana mudra, chin mudra, shambhavi mudra, akashi mudra, bhujangani mudra ahvini mudra, khaki mudra, khechari mudra, prana mudra, navamukhi mudra, and agnisar kriya “Gestures which generate great psychic power and deeply ‘spiritual’ emotions...mudras effectively promote physical health.” (6, p33) Mudras are “the core of the techniques for awakening the chakras.” (6, p 33)

Mula bandha [perineum contraction lock (6, p90)]:
“perform jalandhara bandha. Then contract muscles of the perineum...and draw them upward.” (6, p91)

Muladhara Chakra:
See “Chakras”

Murcha Pranayama (Fainting breath/pranayama):
Sit in lotus, lock elbows with hands against knees, inhale tilting head back, fix eyes on ceiling, retain breath comfortably. Exhale, bending elbows. “Tranquility is induced.... useful for people suffering from abnormal blood pressure, neurosis, or mental problems.” (6, p86-87)

Nadi Shodhan Pranayama (alternate nostril breathing):
There are three “stages” of practice:
     Stage 1: “The Basic Technique” closing one nostril and simply breathing through the other (6, pp80-81)
     Stage 2: “Alternate Nostril Breathing” Inhale from one side and exhale from the other, using equal length of exhale/Inhale. “After 15 days [of daily practice] or more, leave this stage and practice stage 3.” (6, pp80-81)
     Stage 3: Antaranga kumbhaka - Same as Alternate Nostril Breathing but retain breath, first “to the ratio 1:2:2....After some weeks or months of practice, increase the ratio to 1:4:2. When this is mastered, change the ratio to 1:6:4 and upon mastery of this, to 1:8:6. This is the final ratio.” When the final ratio can be done for 25 cycles with complete relaxation and without the need for a rest, the proceed to the final stage, Stage 4. (6, pp80-82)
     Stage 4: Antaranga and bahiranga kumbhaka (Internal and External retention) - “The ratio should start at 1:4:2:2" [inhale/retain, exhale/retain] “Repeat for 15 cycles.” (6, p82)
Benefits:
     1. A “prelude to advanced meditative practices
     2. “All the nadis are cleared of blockages.”
     3. “The flow of prana in the ida and pingala nadis is equalized.”
     4. “The blood system is cleansed of toxins.”
     5. Stale air in the lungs is removed.”
     6. “The brain cells are purifies, encouraging the centers of the brain to work nearer their optimum capacities.” (6, p82)
Nadis (cf Sushumna, Ida and Pingala):
See chart of the flow of Nadis as explained in several references in a chart (6, p136-7)
“A system of energy channels.” (6, p22)
“The nadis of the physical body and the acupuncture meridians may therefore be considered essentially the same.” (6, p27)
“There is no general consensus concerning the number of nadis which exist in the body: figures from 1,000 to 350,000 are mentioned. The number which appears most often, however, is 72,000.’ (6, p135)
“The Upanishads agree that the nadis originate in the navel.” (6, p139)

Navamukhi Mudra (AKA Yoni Mudra):
Using fingers and thumbs, close off eyes, nose, mouth and ears (6, p105)

Nirvana:
“Only that yogi; Whose joy is inward,; Inward his peace,; And his vision inward; Shall come to Brahman; And know Nirvana.” (2, p61)
Sri Krishna: “If your heart is united with me, you will be set free from karma even in this life, and come to me at the last.” (2, p84)
“Final liberation (6, p32) [liberated from rebirth]
“Direct experience of the universal mind.” (6, p13)
To reach transcendence requires "the constant desire of an individual seeker to experience the eternal compassion of the divine [within]." (33, 206)
Buddhism - "Freedom from all evil, freedom from craving, hatred, and ignorance, freedom from all terms of duality, relativity, time and space." (34, 38)
“Enlightenment for a wave is the moment the wave realizes that it is water.” (10, p 138)

Nivritti:
When Nivritti begins to appear, “then begin morality and religion.” (24, p85)
Nivritti “is good work.” (24, p85)
“This Nivritti is the fundamental basis of all morality and all religion,, and the very perfection o it is entire self-abnegation, readiness to sacrifice mind and body and everything for another being..” (24, p85)

Niyamas:
The niyamas or observances...compliment the conditions described in the yamas.” (7, p80)

Noble Eightfold Path - Buddhism:
See "8 Fold Path above"

Nose Gazing:
“A powerful method which can potentially double the effects of concentration.” (6, p109)

Pada hastasana (Forward bend.):
“Benefits the digestion and the blood circulation, and is an effective treatment for constipation and gastro-intestinal disease.... The spinal nerves are toned and the spine is made supple.” (6, 56)

Pada Prasarita Paschimottanasana (“leg spread variation”):
[variation of seated forward bend AKA Paschimottanasana - Same as Paschimottanasana except spread legs out straight to the sides before bending forward] - “Sit with legs spread as wide as possible (180 is ideal)” - This variation is “more effective in loosening the lower back and the hip joints.” (6, 59-60)

Padmasana (Lotus Pose & ½ Lotus Pose):
“Steadiness of the body brings steadiness of the mind, and this steadiness is the first step toward productive meditation. This asana helps direct the proper flow of prana from the muladhara chakra [#1 anus] to the sahasrara [#7 crown]....Physical, nervous, and emotional problems are effectively cleared up.” (6, pp71-72)

Para (cf Vaikhari, Madhyama, Pashyanti, Para):
“Para is pure intention – pure because it is a direct expression of the will of reality, unadulterated by any personal preference... Para...is so subtle that it is commonly perceptible only to those who are highly evolved.”...It is “the ever-truthful universal voice and is the embodiment of ritam (cosmic truth).” 13,70-71)

Paschimottanasana (“Back-stretching pose”):
[seated forward bend] - “Concentrate on the svadhisthana chakra [#2 below navel] - “The hamstring muscles are stretched and the hip, sacroiliac, and lumbar vertebral joints are loosened. Flatulence, constipation, backache, and also excess fat in the abdominal region are effectively removed....Paschimottanasana is traditionally regarded as a very powerful asana for spiritual awakening and is highly praised in ancient yoga texts.” (6, 58-59)

Pashyanti (cf Vaikhari, Madhyama, Pashyanti, Para):
“Pashyanti, single-minded speech, is perceptible but not particularized.... When you speak at the pashyanti level, you are sure of your message; your intentions (selfish or altruistic) are always clear.” (13, 70)

Pavritti:
“Pavritti which means revolving towards, and the other is Nivritti which means revolving away.” (24, p85) Pavritti “includes all those things which are always enriching that’me’ by wealth and money and power and name and fame and which are of a grasping nature, always trying to accumulate everything in one centre, that centre being ‘myself’.” (24, p85) Pavritti “is evil work.” (24 p85)

Perineum contraction lock:
See "Mula bandha"

Pingala (cf. Ida and sushumna):
“The ida and pingala start at the muladhara ad spiral about the sushumna up to the ajna, intersecting at each chakra along the way.... The pingala starts on the right side and passes through the right nostril.” (6, 143)

Plow/Plough Pose:
See "Halasana"

Prakriti:
“Matter”p240 [Glossary]
“Prakrti is subject to constant change and embraces all matter, even our mind, thoughts, feelings and memories. All prakriti can be seen and perceived by purusa.” (1, p93)
“There is only one prakriti, one common universe for us all.” (1, p94)
Sri Krishna: “My Prakriti is of eightfold composition: earth, water, fire, air, ether, mind, intellect, and ego.” (2, p70)
“The power of Brahman is the basis of all mind and matter. It is called Prakrti, or Maya; the terms are interchangeable. According to the Gita, Ishwara makes Himself a body out of Prakrti whenever He chooses to be born among men. Nevertheless, because He is a God, He remains master of Prakrti even in His human form. It is in this that the divine incarnation differs from the ordinary mortal. Prakrti is said to be composed of 3 gunas: sattwa (the pure and fine), rajas (action) and tamas.” (2, p133).
NOTE: Brahman, the reality, is the total Godhead. It can never be defined or expressed. Brahman does not exist but is existence itself.... Brahman is within all creatures and objects. When Brahman is in these things, He is known as Atman.. The Atman and the Brahman are one. When Brahman is considered in relation to this universe, He is regarded as a personal God, Ishwara. Ishwara is God with attributes. Ishwara is Brahman united with His power. Ishwara creates this universe as Brahma, preserves it as Vishnu and destroys it as Shiva. (2, pp 131-133)

Prana:
“Primarily through breathing that prana enters the human body.” (6, p77) “Prana or vital energy is absorbed into the body through respiration or directly through the function of the chakras. (6, 157) “Usually, five varieties of prana are posited: Prana (lungs), apana (digestion), vyana (whole body), samana (navel area), udana (above the throat and the four limbs).”... There are also five sub-categories of prana called “upa pranas” that control specific bodily functions like salivation, sneezing hair growth etc. (6, 157-159)

Pranayama:
See Nadi Shodham Pranayama (alternate Nostril Breathing), Bhastrika pranayama (bellows breath), Ujjayi pranayama (psychic breathing), Surya Bhedana pranayama (Vitality stimulating technique), and Murcha pranayama (Fainting pranayama) “The aim [of pranayama] is not the control of universal prana - only that which enters and flows through the body.” (6, p77 fn)
“Yogic breathing [complete yogic breath] is not pranayama itself but a preliminary practice.” (6, p79)

Pratyahara:
“More accurately understood as the movement of the mind toward silence rather than toward things.” (28, 67)

Purashcharana:
A vratas. A “promise to recite a specific number of mantras in a certain amount of time for a particular purpose.” (14, 83)

Pure Land Buddhism:
Pure Land Buddhism teaches people that if they practice well now, they will be reborn in the Western Paradise of the Buddha Amida, the Land of Wonderous Joy of the Buddha Aksobhya, or the Heaven of Gratitude of the Buddha Maitreya.” (10, p 127)

Purusa:
“Yoga subscribes to the notion that deep within us there is something that is also very real but, unlike everything else, is not subject to change. We call this wellspring purusa or drastr, meaning ‘that which sees’ or ‘that which can see correctly.’” (1, p12)
“The mind is the instrument through which the purusa perceives, yet the energy and power that the mind needs in order to see comes from the purusa.” (1, p89)
“Purusa is that part of us capable of real seeing and perception. it is not subject to change.” (1, p93)
“In death the purusa vanishes....Yet for the purusa there is no death.” (1, p94)
“Only because we sometimes experience moments of clarity do we know that there is a purusa.” (1, p94)
“As the source of action, our purusa works like the transmitter for an electric door. But what actually moves is the door. Our purusa is the source of our action. But we also need our purusa as a witness and constant observer of the functioning of the mind.” (1, p95)Yoga Sutra it says that when there is no more restlessness in the mind, purusa will unfold and see.” (1, p136)
Ishvarapranidhana refers to “divine spirits who have their own individuality. The essence of these deities is Purusha, the universal consciousness of True Self.” (6, p37)
“The real Self [purusa] is the one you experience in dreams. That is the reality that lies beyond fear and death.” (18, p64)

Raga (attachment/greed) (cf. Klesa):
“What we do have is not enough and we want more of it. We want to keep what we are asked to give away. This is raga.” (1, p 10)
“Avidya is the root cause of the obstacles that prevent us from recognizing things as they really are. The obstacles are asmita (ego), raga (attachment), dvesa (refusal), and abhinivesa (fear).” (1, p 11-Figure 1)
“When a man knows that his Atman; Is the Atman in all creatures,; Then let him act,; Untainted by action.” (2, p 57)
“All work becomes equally and vitally important. It is only toward the results of work–success or failure, praise or blame–that he remains indifferent.” (2, p 139)

Raja:
See “Guna”

Reincarnation:
“Elements of reincarnation are certainly present in the teachings of Christianity.” (10, p 132)

Rishi (cf “vipras”):
“A wise, God-intoxicated seer who served as a vessel for reality, a conduit through which truth could flow.” (13, 69)

Sadhana:
“Spiritual discipline” or applying spiritual values and ideals to our lives (26, p 22)

Samadhi:
“Brahman can only be experienced in that super conscious state achieved by the saints, which is called samadhi, or union with God. The methods of reaching this state are described at length in the Bhagavad-Gita. When all sense-contact with the outer world has been broken by means of discrimination, spiritual discipline and meditation, the mind is able to turn inward upon itself and realize the presence of the Atman, the immanent Godhead. This is the technique of all mystical practice, and it has been taught by every true religion.” (2, p132)
“Being in the company of the Lord of Life within is call samadhi [spiritual absorption].” (3, 5)
Samadhi is “the super conscious state. In samadhi unity of self with all things is experienced. This is the state of consciousness where heart and mind have been unified and the Yogi is one with life.” (7, p81)

Samsara:
“This process by which an individual jiva passes through a sequence of bodies is known as reincarnation or transmigration of the soul — in Sanskrit samsara, a word that signifies endless passage through cycles of life, death and rebirth.” (25, 63)

Samskara:
“Every work that we do, every movement of the body, every thought that we think, leaves and impression on the mind-stuff [chitta].” (24, p39)

Samtosa (2nd niyama):
Samtosa is “modesty and the feeling of being content with what we have....the real meaning of samtosa—to accept what happens.” (1, p101)

Samyama:
“Total continuous concentration on one object.” (1, p241)
“When dharana, dhyana, and samadhi are concentrated on one object, the resulting state is called samyama.” (1, p110)
“The true goal of samyama is to concentrate on one object and to investigate it until we know everything about it.” (1, p111)
“When these processes [dharana, dhyana, samadhi] are continuously and exclusively applied to the same object it is called samyama.” (1, p185 - translation of sutra 3.4)

Samyoga:
“The inability to distinguish what is perceived from what perceives.” (1, p170) “Entanglement or confused identification.” (1, p241)

Sanatana Dharma:
Eternal faith; the vast family of traditions mislabeled ‘Hinduism.’” (13, 76)

Sangha:
“In Buddhism, a Sangha is a group of monks, nuns, laymen, and laywomen who practice together to encourage the best qualities in each other.” (10, p 63)

Sankalpa shakti:
“Willpower.” “The power to make one’s intentions manifest.” (14, 83)

Sanyasin:
“One who has renounced the world and could be a young or older peron.” (L.M., 1/9/05)

Sattva or sattwa:
See "Gunas"

Satya (2nd yama):
“Truthfulness. If speaking the truth has negative consequences for another, then it is better to say nothing. The mahabharata, the great Indian epic, says: ‘Speak the truth which is pleasant. Do not speak unpleasant truth. Do not lie, even if the lies are pleasing to the ear. That is the eternal law, the dharma.’” (1, pp98-99) Satya is not possible “until we first remove this veil of self-deception. It is ourselves we have deceived, and it is ourselves to whom we must first be true. (7, pp61-62)

Seated forward bend:
Back-stretching pose - see Paschimottanasana

Sera:
"Sera is the Sanskrit term for the spiritual practice of selfless service." (33, 192)

Shakta Upaya:
Techniques involving mental energy which “include study, contemplation, visualization, meditation, and working with mantras mentally.” (See 4 Stages of Spiritual Practice above) (29, 77)

Shalbasana Locust pose:
“Lie on stomach with the hands beside the thighs, palms facing down. Stretch and raise the legs, together with the abdomen as high as possible by pressing the arms against the floor. Make sure the knees do not bend.” (6, p 115)

Shambhava Upaya:
Technioques “involving the use of will” to center our focus or concentration. (See 4 Stages of Spiritual Practice above) (29, 77)

Shambhavi mudra (eyebrow-center gazing):
Sit “in chin or jnana mudra...Focus the eyes on a point directly between the eyebrows and concentrate on that point...meditate on the self (Atman) or the Supreme Consciousness (Paramatma)...a powerful technique for awakening the ajna chakra...brings calmness of mind and removes tension and anger.” (6, pp97-8)

Shitali Pranayama and Shitakari Pranayama (Cooling Breaths):
Shitali Pranayama - Moisten and curl tongue into “tube”; stick tongue out between teeth; inhale through curled tongue; exhale through nose.
Shitakari Pranayama - Moisten and curl tongue, touching hard palate; clinch teeth and draw lips back as far as possible; inhale through teeth; exhale through nose.

Shiva:
“Hinduism has further personified the three functions or aspects of Ishwara as Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva. Brahma represents the divine unction of creation, Vishnu preservation, and Shiva dissolution.” (2, p 132)
“The legend behind the existence of tantra yoga is that it was created and taught to mankind by the Lord Shiva. Lord Shiva, known as the Destroyer, ranks with Lord Brahma, the Creator, and Lord Vishnus, the Maintainer, as one of the three great Gods of Indian religious teaching. the tantra yoga given by Shiva provides the means whereby a man can transcend himself and attain a state of being unified with and equal to that of God, the Absolute, Himself.” (6, p21)

Siddhi:
“Accomplishment or perfection” (26, 22)

Siddha:
“Accomplished on or adept” (26, 22)

Siddhasana (Male accomplished Pose or Adept’s Pose):
“Siddhasana is only for men” [See Siddha yoni asana] “Always with jnana or chin mudra.”“The practitioner can thus gain control over sexual functions that is essential to the maintenance of celibacy.” (6, pp72-73)

Siddha yoni asana (Female accomplished Pose or Adept’s Pose):
“Siddha yoni asana is a form of Siddhasana for women that has been handed down only by word of mouth.”; “wishing to control sexual desire.” (6, pp73-74)

Soul:
“Jivatma (the individual soul in each person)” (6, p96)

Spinal Twists:
Dynamic Spinal Twist - Seated, hold toes with one hand as you move the other around 15-20 times. Increase speed with practice. (6, pp66-67)
Ardha Matsyendrasana (Half spinal twist pose) - “Note: This is a very important asana and should be practiced at least once every day. Concentrate on the ajna chakra [#6 third eye]. The spinal nerves are toned, and the back muscles and intervertebral joints are made supple. The asana regulates the secretion of adrenaline from the adrenal glands and also activates the pancreas, thus counteracting diabetic tendencies.” (6, pp68-69) Ardha Matsyendrasana (Hero’s twist pose) - Almost identical directions and “benefits” (4, p24)
Bhu Namanasana (Spinal twist prostration pose) - [not even possible!!] (6, pp69-70)

Stomach lock:
See "Uddiyana bandha"

Subtle Body:
See “The three Bodies” at top

Sushupti:
From the Lakshmi Tantra: “deep sleep....your inner senses shut off and lucidity is lost altogether. You become completely unconscious.” (12, p64)

Sushumna:
“According to the Upanishads and other sources, the sushumna lies in the central canal of the spinal cord, and has an opening at the Gate of Brahman.” (6, p26) “The Muladhara [chakra] is its starting point.” (6, 141)

Svadhishthana Chakra:
See “Chakras”

Svadyaya:
"Study to understand the self....associating with like-minded, spiritually-focused people....repetition of a personal mantra." (31, 34)
"Begin with the study of writings that inspire you to feel the presence of the indwelling spirit." (32, 46)

Svapna:
From the Lakshmi Tantra: “the dream state....Your five senses shut down and the inner organs of consciousness switch on.” (12, p64)

Tadasana (Mountain Pose):
good for viewing Nature

Tamas:
See "Gunas"

Tanha - Buddhism:
"Includes not only desire for, and attachment to, sense-pleasures, wealth and power, butalso desire for, and attachment to, ideas and ideals, views, opinions, theories, conceptions and beliefs." (34, 30)

Tantra (Yoga):
“Tantra is a vast science in which every method of expanding the conscious experience has been explored.” (6, p13)
“A scientific system whereby man can improve the structure and quality of his body and mind, and through which he can transform his ailing personality.” (6, p14)
“The legend behind the existence of tantra yoga is that it was created and taught to mankind by the Lord Shiva. Lord Shiva, known as the Destroyer, ranks with Lord Brahma, the Creator, and Lord Vishnus, the Maintainer, as one of the three great Gods of Indian religious teaching. the tantra yoga given by Shiva provides the means whereby a man can transcend himself and attain a state of being unified with and equal to that of God, the Absolute, Himself.” (6, p21)

Tapas:
Tapas is “the practice of asanas and pranayama, that is, the physical and breathing exercises of yoga.” (1, p13)
Tapas is “something we do to keep us physically and mentally healthy. It is a process of inner cleansing: we remove things that we do not need.” (1, p80)
“Tapas refers to the activity of keeping the body fit. Literally it means to heat the body and, by doing so, to cleanse it.... Earlier I discussed asanas and pranayama as means by which we can keep ourselves healthy. Another form of tapas is paying attention to what we eat.” (1, p101)
Tapahs is the reduction of “both physical and mental impurities.” (1, p165) “Tapas are practices such as asana and pranayama that can help us to remove blocks and tensions, both physical and mental.” (2, p137)
“Tapas...is heat or glow. Through tapas, the solar spirit shines brightly through its physical body, which is our sun....Tapas is any practice that pushes the mind against its own limits; the key ingredient of tapas is endurance...voluntary self challenge as a means to spiritual growth.” (11, p28)
“Tapas begins with temporarily or permanently denying ourselves a particular desire.... The Bhagavad Gita (17.14-16) speaks of three kinds of tapas: austerity of body, speech, and mind.” (11, p29)

Tapasvin:
“The early name for yogin is tapasvin, practitioner of tapas, or voluntary self challenge as a means to spiritual growth.” (11, p28)

Theravada - Buddhism:
"Hinayana or ‘Small Vehicle’ is no longer used in informed circles." "Could be translated as ‘the School of the Elders." "Regarded as the original orthodox Buddhism in followed in Ceylon, Burma, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, and Chittagong in East Pakistan." (34, xii)

Tipitaka - Buddhism:
"Universally accepted by scholars as the earliest extant records of the teachings of the Buddha. (34, xi)

Trataki:
“The practice of gazing at an object.... Two categories: bahiranga (outer) and antaranga (inner)” (6, p118)

Triangle Pose:
Trikonasana

Trikonasana (Triangle Pose):
Trikonasana [I - middle school gym class triangle] - “Hold breath out while swiveling.” The spine and the nerves are massaged, the entire nervous system is gently stimulated and the muscles of the lower back are stretched. Sufferers from nervous depression thus benefit. The asana massages the abdominal organs and thereby improves the appetite and digestion and is also helpful for removing constipation by stimulating the peristaltic contraction of the intestines.” (6, pp66-67)
Trikonasana [II - Internally Supported Triangle] - Lean-to foot at “90 degrees and for this particular variation of the triangle keep the left foot facing straight to the front...being careful not to allow the right hip to swing to the rear any more than you have to.” [Don’t support yourself on your leg etc] (9, pp256-259)
Trikonasana [III - Externally Supported Triangle] - Lean-to foot at “90 degrees and for this particular variation of the triangle keep the left foot facing straight to the front...being careful not to allow the right hip to swing to the rear any more than you have to.” Grip lean-to thigh firmly. “Then end, sliding the right hand down the thigh and leg.” (9, 259-260)
Trikonasana [IV - Forward Bend Triangle] - “Stand straight, feet together. Exhaling 3 seconds touch toes. Head and neck up, spine horizontal, eyes fixed on nose. Maintain pose 6 seconds. Inhale 3 seconds returning to starting position.” (8, p5)
Trikonasana [V - Classic] - The triangle is a unit of three energy lines: one from the base of the spine to the soles of the feet; another from the base of the spine to the crown of the head; and from fingertips to fingertips.” A good visualization for this is to visualize the body sandwiched between two panes of glass. Stretches and strengthens the ribs and diaphragm and facilitates fuller breathing.” (4, p15)
Trikonasana [VI - Revolving Triangle] - “The revolving triangle is an extremely complex posture which involves forward bending with the lower extremities in a partial splits position plus an additional twist of the trunk to the rear.” [Lean-to foot at 90 degrees and other foot at 60degrees, that is, medially] “Twist to the [lean-to leg] so that you are facing over your [lean-to] thigh...bend forward from the hips with the arms stretched out to the sides.” [bring the arm that is anterior to the hips to the leg, ankle or floor, initiating] a spinal twist so that you are facing the rear....look up at the outstretched hand.” (9, 263-267)

Trishna:
“The thirst after life, what the Buddhists call Tanha and Trissa.” (24, p101)

Turiya:
"The elusive fourth level of human consciousness... the witness of all the other states, the integral awareness that links the other three levels [awake, dreaming, dreamless sleep] together,,,. It’s simply God (33, 196)

TuriyaTrishna:
From the Lakshmi Tantra: “the fourth state.... Your whole being is completely tranquil. Your mind and senses are as still as if you actually were asleep, yet you remain fully awake.” (12, p64)

Uddiyana bandha (Stomach lock):
Perform Jalandhara bandha and contract the abdominal muscles, pulling them upward...pregnant women should not practice this asana...relief from constipation, indigestion, worms, and diabetes.” (6, p93)
“Satyananda recommends uddiyana bandha, in conjunction with agnisar krya [rapid breath] and jaladhara bandha as a method to awaken the manipura. (6, p120)

Ujjayi pranayama (Glottal breathing or “Psychic Breath”[6, p84]):
Contract glottis, fold back tongue “so that the underside is pressed against either the back of the hard palate or, preferably, the soft palate.” Breathe like “the gentle snoring of a sleeping baby. There should be no sensation of breathing through the nostrils, only through the throat.” Calms the mind and nervous system. Good for reducing heart beat, blood pressure, and as an “excellent aid to meditational practices.” [6, p84-85]

Upa Pranas:
See “prana”

Upaya:
See “4 Stages of Spiritual Practice” above

Upanashads:
Part of the Vedas (6, p 131)

Vaikhari (cf Vaikhari, Madhyama, Pashyanti, Para):
“Ordinary, verbal speech, the kind we all hear and use daily, is an expression of kriya shakti, the power of action. You speak in vaikhari when you focus on deeds past, present activities, exploits to come.... Vaukhari lies within the purview of the conscious mind.” (13, p70)

Vairagya:
“Vairagya, dispassion or non-attachment.” (24, p107)

Vajrasana:
Seated meditative posture. “Sit on heels, knees pointing forward” (6, p111)

Vedas:
“The oldest canonical literature of Hiduism (6, p 131)

Vicara anugata samadhi:
Concentration on a thought such as a mantra [Vicara] which leads to or is followed by [anugata] samadhi [full, sustained concentration] (23, 47)

Vipassana - Buddhism:
There are 2 forms of meditation: Samadhi or "mental concentration" and Vipassana or "True Buddhist ‘meditaion’, [in which] the essential thing is mindfulness or awareness (sati), attention or observation (anupassana)." This includes focused breathing and "walking meditation." (34, 69)

Vipras (those who tremble):
See "Rishi"

Vishnu:
“Hinduism has further personified the three functions or aspects of Ishwara as Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva. Brahma represents the divine unction of creation, Vishnu preservation, and Shiva dissolution.” (2, p 132)
“The legend behind the existence of tantra yoga is that it was created and taught to mankind by the Lord Shiva. Lord Shiva, known as the Destroyer, ranks with Lord Brahma, the Creator, and Lord Vishnus, the Maintainer, as one of the three great Gods of Indian religious teaching. the tantra yoga given by Shiva provides the means whereby a man can transcend himself and attain a state of being unified with and equal to that of God, the Absolute, Himself.” (6, p21)
“Lakshmi’s divine husband who represents bhava, pure consciousness.” 912, p62

Vishuddhi Chakra:
See “Chakras”

Vitarka anugata samadhi:
Concentration on a physical object [Vitarka] which leads to or is followed by [anugata] samadhi [full, sustained concentration] (23, 47)

Vratas:
“Resolutions.” [like “new Year’s resolutions but unbreakable] The purpose of which is to “adjust their karmic balance.” (14, 78)
“If you have committed an act you feel guilty about, a vrata may be undertaken to expiate the wrongdoing.” (14, 80) [NOTE: vratas can also be used to build good karma]

Yamas:
“The yamas or restraints are divided into five moral injunctions, aimed at destroying negative human characteristics. They are traditionally practiced and developed through self-discipline. the injunction is to practice the yamas in word, thought and deed.” (7, p79)

Yoga:
(1) Union with God
(2) A prescribed path of spiritual life. The various yogas are, therefore, different paths to union with God. Karma Yoga is the path of selfless, God-dedicated action. (2, P39) [footnote] “Be even-tempered in success and failure; for it is this evenness of temper which is meant by yoga.” (2, p40)

Yoga Upanishads:
“A group of the Upanishads...clearly composed at a much later date [than the rest of the Upanishads], probably in the 6th century A.D. or later.” (6, p131)

Yoga mudra:
“Psychic union pose” - [Lotus + forward bend] - “Concentrate on the manipura chakra” [#3 navel] - “This asana massages the abdominal organs and helps to counteract malfunctions there, including constipation and indigestion.” (6, pp56-57)

Yogi:
A yoga practitioner who has reached “some level of enlightenment as when Krishna says to Arjuna, “Become a Yogai.” (L.M., 1/8/05)

Yogic Breathing:
See “Complete Yogic Breath”

WORKS CITED:
1. Desikachar, T.K.V., The Heart of Yoga: Developing a personal practice. Inner Traditions International. Rochester, VT.

2. Prabhavananda, Swami and Christopher Isherwood, Trans. The Song of God Bhagavad-Gita. The New American Library, Inc. N.Y. 1972.

3. Shaw, Jane. Things to Know. Handout. April, 2002.

4. Sukhatankar, Laxmikant, Ph.D. and Jane L. Shaw. Spirit Springs Yoga Center Teacher Training Course: January 21-27, 2002. Course Handbook. Homosassa, Florida.

5. Tigunait, Pandit Rajmani. Yimag.org. Yoga International. “In Search of God.” June/July 2002.

6. Motoyama, Hiroshi. Theories of the Chakras. Quest Books. Wheaton, Illinois, 1981 (4th printing 1995).

7. McAfee, John. The Secret of the Yamas. Woodland Publications. Woodland Park, Colorado. 2001.

8. Sukhantankar, Laxmikant, Ph.D. Class Handout, Ocala Community College. June 8, 2002. Ocala, FL

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CONTACT: R. John Allcorn, M.A., E-RYT
727-463-5975
allcorn@tampabay.rr.com

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